Rubber Band Ligation
One of the most common hemorrhoid surgeries is rubber band ligation. A tiny rubber band -- its diameter is 1 millimeter (about 1/25 of an inch) -- is fitted onto a special gun-like device. When the trigger is pulled, the rubber band is forced onto the base of the hemorrhoid. Because there are no nerve endings in the rectum, no anesthesia is necessary.
It takes about a week for the strangled tissue to slough off and a scar to form. Rubber band ligation works best on first- and second-degree hemorrhoids.
In sclerotherapy, a chemical solution is injected around the blood vessel to shrink the hemorrhoid. This causes inflammation and eventual scarring that eliminates hemorrhoid symptoms.
With infrared coagulation, a special device uses infrared light to create a small tissue-destroying burn around the base of the hemorrhoid.
Occasionally, extensive or severe internal or external hemorrhoids may require removal by surgery known as hemorrhoidectomy. Unlike the other hemorrhoid surgery options mentioned, a hemorrhoidectomy requires a stay in the hospital and the recovery period can be several weeks.